a story lives forever
Register
Sign in
Form submission failed!

Stay signed in

Recover your password?
Register
Form submission failed!

Web of Stories Ltd would like to keep you informed about our products and services.

Please tick here if you would like us to keep you informed about our products and services.

I have read and accepted the Terms & Conditions.

Please note: Your email and any private information provided at registration will not be passed on to other individuals or organisations without your specific approval.

Video URL

You must be registered to use this feature. Sign in or register.

NEXT STORY

Session of hate

RELATED STORIES

What is a trade union?
Jacek Kuroń Social activist
Comments (0) Please sign in or register to add comments

I think it had the benefit of formulating the right programme in a single word, that what we were aiming for was a trade union and that is something that every worker understands completely. What is a trade union? I'd say it's the workers' natural aspiration, whereas all those self-governing bodies and councils, all of these things are extraneous. I have discovered this to be true many times over, except that at that moment, this wasn't working and it was as Leszek Moczulski said, it creates a growing... when we're struggling, battling, they're arresting us, we're defending ourselves, this is happening, that's happening, it gives people a motto that stays with them, and then, when the right moment arrives, it comes to life just as it did in August '80. Together with Andrzej Celiński, Adam, Adam Michnik, initiated a very sensible and far-sighted operation. Namely, it started with Adam Michnik's lectures on the history of Poland which he gave as he travelled around. But Andrzej began to change this into a mobile university, and began to look for people who would give lectures. A Society for Academic Courses was formed where I, too, gave a lecture. I have to say that the moment arrived when the authorities decided that they had found their number one enemy. The first year went by quietly enough then in '79, I'm not sure exactly, but in '79 they suddenly began sending in the ZMS agitators who'd come to the lectures and break them up. In my case, it was broken up just before the lecture was due to begin - I used to announce beforehand which apartment the lecture was going to be held in, I had a lecture in Ewa Milewicz's home, and while I was on my way to Ewa Milewicz's, the police arrested me - I was locked up for 48. So I announced that if my lecture wasn't being held that day, it would take place in 48 hours's time, and so on until it happened.

Myślę sobie, że to miało taką o to zaletę, że to w jednym słowie formułowało program, o który chodzi, że chodzi o Związek Zawodowy. I to jest absolutnie zrozumiałe dla każdego robotnika. Co to jest Związek Zawodowy? Powiedziałbym, że to jest dążenie robotnicze naturalne, natomiast te wszystkie samorządy, rady, to wszystko jest wnoszone z zewnątrz. O tym przekonałem się już wielokrotnie. Tyle tylko, że to w tym momencie nie działało. To było tak jak mówił Leszek Moczulski: to stwarza... rozpowszechniając się, kiedy się tam walczy, szarpie, oni wsadzają, my się bronimy, tego owego to, to rzuca hasło, które żyje w ludziach, które później w stosownej chwili, to znaczy właśnie w sierpniu '80 ożyło. No bardzo taką sensowną i dalekowzroczną akcję zainicjował Adam z Andrzejem Celińskim, Adam Michnik. Mianowicie zaczęli... zaczęły się od wykładów Adama Michnika o historii Polski, z którymi oni chodzili, z którymi Adam chodził. Ale Andrzej zaczął to przekształcać w taki Uniwersytet Latający, szukać ludzi, którzy będą robić wykłady, powstało Towarzystwo Kursów Naukowych, gdzie ja również złożyłem swój wykład. Trzeba powiedzieć, że w pewnym momencie władza uznała, że tu ma wroga numer jeden. Pierwszy rok przebiegło nam to zupełnie spokojnie, ach, chyba właśnie w '79 ja nie jestem pewny, w '79 oni zaczęli wyzywać aktyw ZMS-owski. Bojówki, które przychodziły na wykłady i zrywały je praktycznie. U mnie zerwano to w ten sposób, że tuż przed godziną, bo ja naprzód wygłosiłem wykład gdzieś tam w jakimś mieszkaniu, miałem wykład w mieszkaniu u Ewy Milewicz, no i po drodze do Ewy Milewicz mnie milicja zamknęła – siedziałem 48 [godzin]. No to ja ogłosiłem, że jeśli nie ma mojego wykładu tego dnia, to się odbywa następny za czterdzieści osiem godzin i tak aż do skutku.

The late Polish activist, Jacek Kuroń (1934-2004), had an influential but turbulent political career, helping transform the political landscape of Poland. He was expelled from the communist party, arrested and incarcerated. He was also instrumental in setting up the Workers' Defence Committee (KOR) and later became a Minister of Labour and Social Policy.

Listeners: Marcel Łoziński Jacek Petrycki

Film director Marcel Łoziński was born in Paris in 1940. He graduated from the Film Directing Department of the National School of Film, Television and Theatre in Łódź in 1971. In 1994, he was nominated for an American Academy Award and a European Film Academy Award for the documentary, 89 mm from Europe. Since 1995, he has been a member of the American Academy of Motion Picture Art and Science awarding Oscars. He lectured at the FEMIS film school and the School of Polish Culture of Warsaw University. He ran documentary film workshops in Marseilles. Marcel Łoziński currently lectures at Andrzej Wajda’s Master School for Film Directors. He also runs the Dragon Forum, a European documentary film workshop.

Cinematographer Jacek Petrycki was born in Poznań, Poland in 1948. He has worked extensively in Poland and throughout the world. His credits include, for Agniezka Holland, Provincial Actors (1979), Europe, Europe (1990), Shot in the Heart (2001) and Julie Walking Home (2002), for Krysztof Kieslowski numerous short films including Camera Buff (1980) and No End (1985). Other credits include Journey to the Sun (1998), directed by Jesim Ustaoglu, which won the Golden Camera 300 award at the International Film Camera Festival, Shooters (2000) and The Valley (1999), both directed by Dan Reed, Unforgiving (1993) and Betrayed (1995) by Clive Gordon both of which won the BAFTA for best factual photography. Jacek Petrycki is also a teacher and a filmmaker.

Tags: Society for Academic Courses, ZMS, Leszek Moczulski, Andrzej Celiński, Adam Michnik, Ewa Milewicz

Duration: 2 minutes, 3 seconds

Date story recorded: 1987

Date story went live: 12 June 2008