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Biology doesn't allow for relaxing baths

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Automata akin to living cells
Sydney Brenner Scientist
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What von Neumann says is that you need several components in order to provide this self-reproducing automaton. One component, which he calls automaton A, will make another automaton A when furnished with a description of itself. Then you need an automaton C… you need an automaton B, which has the property of copying the instruction tape I, and then you need a control mechanism which will actually control the switching. And so this automaton, or machine, can reproduce itself in the following way. The entity A is provided with a copy of… with the tape I, it now makes another A. The control mechanism then takes the tape I and gives it to B and says make a copy of this tape. It makes a copy of the tape and the control mechanism then inserts the new copy of the tape into the new automaton and effects the separation of the two. Now, he shows that the entire complex is clearly self-reproductive, there is no vicious circle and he goes on to say, in a very modest way I think, the following. He says, 'The description of this automaton has some further attractive sides into which I shall not go at this time into any length. For instance, it is quite clear that the instruction I is roughly effecting the functions of a gene. It is also clear that the copying mechanism B performs the fundamental act of reproduction, the duplication of the genetic material which is also clearly the fundamental operation in the multiplication of living cells. It is also clear to see how arbitrary alterations of the system E, and in particular of the tape I, can exhibit certain traits which appear in connection with mutation, which is lethality as a rule, but with a possibility of continuing reproduction with a modification of traits.' So, I mean, this is… this we know from later work that these ideas were first put forward by him in the late '40s. This is the… a published form which I read in early 1952; the book was published a year earlier and so I think that it's a remarkable fact that he had got it right, but I think that because of the cultural difference – distinction between what most biologists were, what most physicists and mathematicians were – it absolutely had no impact at all.

South African Sydney Brenner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2002. His joint discovery of messenger RNA, and, in more recent years, his development of gene cloning, sequencing and manipulation techniques along with his work for the Human Genome Project have led to his standing as a pioneer in the field of genetics and molecular biology.

Listeners: Lewis Wolpert

Lewis Wolpert is Professor of Biology as Applied to Medicine in the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology of University College, London. His research interests are in the mechanisms involved in the development of the embryo. He was originally trained as a civil engineer in South Africa but changed to research in cell biology at King's College, London in 1955. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1980 and awarded the CBE in 1990. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1999. He has presented science on both radio and TV and for five years was Chairman of the Committee for the Public Understanding of Science.

 

 


Listen to Lewis Wolpert at Web of Stories

 

 

Tags: 1940s, 1952, John von Neumann

Duration: 3 minutes, 22 seconds

Date story recorded: April-May 1994

Date story went live: 24 January 2008